Pages 21-40

thinking that some secret airfield might have been constructed in the southern part of Kiangsi, decided to raid down through all of Kiangei, part of Kwangsi, and Honan provinces, which were the only areas close enough so that planes could fly to Japan. If there were such a secret airfield they planned on locating it. During the month of June 194 news that the Jape had crossed the river south of Kanchang, Just 75 miles north of Fuchow was heard. At first it was thought to be only a rumor, or a small raid. At this time rumors were so prevalent that you paid very little attention to them for they had been proven false so many times in the past. But this time it proved to be more than a rumor.
When it was ascertained that the Japanese had really crossed the Han River, and which put them in our Vicariate, we were at a loss to know what might happen. Of course, there were stories of the Chinese soldiers putting up a stiff resistance, of stopping theme of defeating them, etc. But I don’t think that there ever was a real battle at any times. Shots were exchanged a few times, but other than that the Chinese soldiers fled without fighting. however, the Japanese did advance fairly slowly. I suppose they did fear, at first at least, that the Chinese soldiers might put up some resistance, or that them might ambush them, and also since the Chinese had torn up the roads years before, there was no way of moving any tanks, trucks, etc., so they had to come by foot, horse, and sail boat up the rivers.
When rumors got really heavy, and it looked like the Japs were really headed in their direction, Steve Dunker in Fuchow had Father Herb Vandenburg take the bigger orphans from the orphanage in Fuchow and head in the direction. of Ihwang.
Both Steve and I (and everyone else as well) figured that Ihwang was Just about the one place where the Japs would NOT come. Ihwang was in the mountains; on the road to nowhere; unimportant militarily; hard to get to, etc., etc. I Just could not seem to believe that they would come there in any manner shape or form.




About a day after Father Vandenburg had left with the orphans the rumors in Fuchow were getting hot and heavy, and so Father Steve Dunker and Father Clarence Murphy decided it was time to get out. So towards evening they loaded some of their things on to wheelbarrows, and decided L to head towards Ihwang at daylight,
Around midnight they heard pounding on the gate of the residence. The gateman would not open it, for looking out of the window he saw that it was Japanese soldiers doing the pounding. This information was shouted out, and Steve and Slug Murphy ran out of the residence. The Japs were at the front door, at the only way out, so they ran towards the back of the residence, and
with the aid of a ladder they crawled over the wall to the outside of the residence. There were Japanese soldiers all about, but being night they were not recognized. Lest they meet any of them face to face and be recognized, they left the road and headed through some rice fields which were filled with water. They circled the town, which the Japs had not yet entirely occupied, and headed towards Shangtinfu. There was a Carbolic mission there, with a Chinese priest in residence. They went to the residence where they rested and waited for word as to the direction the Japs were taking, and to see if they were going farther than Fuchow.
By that evening they heard that the Japs were headed in their direction, so they took off for Chuha, a small town about ‘15 miles away, and where another Catholic church was located. Both Shangtinfu and Chu-ha were in the direction, and on the road to, Ihwang.
Having to floe from Fuchow as they did, they were unable to take any of the things they had packed on the wheelbarrows, and all they had was a small bag, or briefcase, which Steve had previously packed with money and a few other essential articles. But as far as clothes, shoes etc., they had none, except what they had on.
When they arrived at Chu-ha they went to the mission there to rat and get something to eat, thinking that they would be sale, at least for some time. By nightfall they heard that the Japs were nearing the town so they took off again, headed this time for Ihwang.

At Chu-ha they caught up with Herb and the orphans, and so they all took off for Ihwang together.
All during this time I was not too worried, for Communications between Ihwang and Fuchow had been broken off. There were lots of rumors, but I did not believe too many of them. I just could not believe that the Japanese would come to Ihwang. And even though the Chinese are prone to believe rumors, not too many of them believed that the Japanese would come to Ihwang, As a result, things were relatively calm and peaceful in Ihwang.
Then one morning I received definite word that Father Vandenburg and the orphans were headed for Ihwang, and would arrive within a few hours. So I saddled my horse and decided to go out and meet them, and escort them into town.
About 3-4 miles out of town I met the entire crowd, and to my surprise found that Steve and Murphy were along, as well as Herb and the orphans. Now, for the first time, I heard the whole story of what happened in Fuchow, and along the way.
Both Steve and Slug had been walking for almost 3 says, and they had blisters on their feet, caused by the fact that they had waded thru the rice fields in getting out of Fuchow. They got mud and sand in
their shoes, and could not stop to clean their shoes, and consequently got blisters. So I gave them my horse to ride between them, and I walked.
We arrived at out residence around 11 A.M., and when I asked Steve if he thought there was any possibility of the Japanese coming to Ihwang he said that he hardly thought so, but just to be on the safe sides it might be a good idea to pack some of our more valuab1e things on a boat and send them to the country, and hide them in some Christian’s home. So I started packing some things, and sent a man out to see if he could here a boat to take some things out to the country, just in case the Japanese did come.


I saw no need to panic, for even though the Japs had come to Chu-ha, that did not mean they necessarily would come to Ihwang, for, from Chu-ha the main road went west, and the road to Ihwang wan only a branch road, and a minor one at that, Nevertheless, I did start packing some things intending to put them on a boat tomorrow and take them up river.
During the time I was packing Steve, Herb and Slug lay down to get some rest, for they had been walking and getting very little sleep In the past three days. Since they had no clothes except what they had on their backs I gave them some of mine, but it did not fit too wells for they were both bigger than I was but it was the best we could do. I sent their shoes, which were muddy and water soaked over to the women’s side of the residence and asked some of the women to wash their clothes and clean up their shoes.
Steve went upstairs to my bedroom; Murph went to the guestroom, and Herbie lay down in the breeze-way. All this time I was leisurely packing a few things into boxes and baskets. But money and some other valuables I put in a small valise that I would carry with me in case I had to suddenly run.
Suddenly about 2 o’clock gunfire started, and after a while you could hear bullets whining over the buildings. I was standing there in my room trying to figure out what this meant, when Steve flew down from my upstairs bedroom shouting: “The Japs are here. The Japs are here” He hardly stopped for a moment, and was then out the back door of my, room and to the back door in the residence wall, with Herb and Murph nor far behind him.
Before laying down I had told Steve that Just in case we did have to leave we would go to one of our missions, 0u-tu, where we had a small church, priest’s room, school, etc. At this time it seemed a very remote possibility that we would have to go but Just to be on the safe side, we would make these plans.
I could hardly believe that the shooting and the bullets were from the Japs, for I thought they might be from Chinese soldiers. As a result, I did not immediately flee. However, within the matter of a few minutes every single person in the residence, as well as 30 Fuchow


orphans, three priests, etc., had gone through the back gate of our residence and. headed towards the bridge which took them to the other side of the river from the town. and opposite sides of the river from which the Japs had to come in.
I still doubted if it really was the Japanese, and the for the need to flee, but when I saw that I was now the last person left in the residence, I decided that I might as well go too, rather than be left alone, Consequently I than ran into my room to get the small briefcase I had prepared with money etc. I picked it up by the handle, but in excitement forgot that I had previously not latched the lid, only closed
it. As a result, when I picked it up, it fell open, scattering all 1 contents on the floor. I began picking them up, but by now panic was taking hold of me, and I ended up scooping and shoving the larger piles of articles into the valise, and letting the other lay.
I ran out my back door, and then did one of the foolish things a person does under stress. I guess it was just so ingrained in me to lock my door when I want out, that when I was some 10 feet away I remembered that I had not locked my door. So I went back, locked the do and streaked out the back door in the wall,
By this time, and it must have been longer than it seemed, but to me it seemed that it could not have been 10 minutes from the time we heard the bullets whining over the house, but in this time the entire residence had evacuated, as well as thousands and thousands of townspeople had already crossed the bridge, and were on the other side of the river. This would have been a physical impossibility in the short time it seemed to me, and though it might have been longer than it seemed to me, I will say that surely a record was set that day by the number of people evacuating the town.
By the time I had gotten across the bridge, not. only the Ihwang people and Fuchow people, but it seemed to me, all of Ihwang, were headed up the river and almost out of sight. None of the Fuchow people had ever been to Ou-tu, and they had only a vague idea if how to get there. So, loot they take some wrong road, and land up somewhere else, I wanted to catch up with them and see that we stayed on the right road.



By this time it seemed that I was behind the entire horde of people, all running up the river, and away from Ihwang. Consequently I began to run as fast as I could to catch up. After perhaps a half mile or so I could see Stephen up
ahead. I could do this because he was bigger than any of the Chinese. Everyone was running, and would not stop, and being out of hailing distance, and as I was thoroughly winded, I decided to whistle to them so they would 1ook back and see me, and I could give them the signal to wait. Chinese never could whistle through their fingers, so I knew that if Steve heard this whistle he would know that it was I, and look back,
After trying for some time to wet my fingers and lips to whistle, for I was so tired and scared that my mouth was as dry as sand. Finally I was able to lot out a whistle blast. Everyone looked back, and when I waved for Steve to stop, all the Chinese who were between myself and Steve, seeing me wave and yell something, which they did not understand, being panic stricken, someone thinking my whistle and motions meant that the Japan were immediately behind me, so he shouted: “The Japs are right behind!”
So instead of stopping everyone took off even faster than before. I was at a loss to know why they immediately started running faster than before, for I did not hear the Chinese shout that the Japs were right behind us. So after a little I decided to whistle again. Again, the same results everyone started running all the faster.
since I could not stop them I could do nothing but try to keep up with them in the rear. Soon exhaustion overcame everyone, and I was able to catch up, and reach Steve and the others farther up.
Ou-tu was 50 ly (17 miles) away, and it would have been impossible to reach there that day, so I decided that we would proceed a bit farther, and then stop at the home of a very good Catholic, Ao-Yang, Chwren-.sen for, the night, whose home was only about 2 miles farther on. We could stay the night at his home, and proceed to 0U-Tu the next day.
That evening after supper at Chwren-sen’s house I got to thinking that we had left Ihwang in 5-10 minutes notice. We had only the clothes on our backs; the Blessed Sacrament was left in the church; we had no Mass wine, extra clothes, etc, for our undetermined length stay in Ou-tu.


The more I thought of t, the more convinced I because that it would be a relatively simple matter, and probably not too dangerous either to return to Ihwang and get some things out of the residence; consume the Blessed Sacrament in the church, and do so without being caught by the Japs.
The residence in Ihwang backed up on the river, and between the back gate of the residence and the river there was nothing but a sand beach, and on the other side open fields. Up somewhat from the residence there was a bridge across the river, but since there was the possibility that this might be guarded, I could easily go downstream from the bridge, and opposite the residence and wade across the river, for it was not very deep at this point. After wading the river I could slip in the back gate of the residence, get out the things we wanted, and then back through the gate again.
Two young men who worked for the residence, and who wore with us said that they would go back with me, and so we set out. Across the river, opposite the residence a Catholic family lived about ) of a mile from the river. When we neared Ihwang we stayed &way from the river, just in case the Japs had guards at the bridges, and since we were near this Catholic family’s home, we decided to stop and ask them the lay of the land. They said that the Japs had briefly crossed the river, but had gone back and were nowhere on this side. this family consisted of an old lady, a widow, and her married son. The old lady said that she had been into town towards dark, and saw no Japs around the river. She said that since she was old, she felt she had nothing to fear, and said that she would cross the bridge now to see if there were guarding it. She said that if she met any Japs she would simply tell them that she was looking for her son, who had not returned home.
So we went up to the bridge, the old lady going across first. She soon came back and reported that the coast was clear, and that there were no Japs in sight. So we all crossed over, and were soon slipping into the back gate of the residence.
Having an old woman crossing the bridge before us was a switch, but it just goes to show how things are frequently turned around in China. In the circumstances it was probably the most logical. An old lady had


little to fear; whereas, any man, and especially me, an American had plenty to fear.
When I entered the back gate of the residence I could see no light of any kind in any of the buildings, nor could I hear any sound. I felt sure that if the Japs were sleeping in any of the buildings there, they would have had guards, and likewise some sort of light somewhere. Never- theless I approached the priest’s house very cautiously, and listened for any sort of sound. But not a sound was to be heard, and while it was not bright moonlight, it was not pitch dark either, and looking through all the ground floor windows I could see or hear nothing. I cautiously went through the whole house, and there was no one present. The men who had come with me went to the front of the compound, to the front gate, and they come bock saying there was no one there either,
I then went to the church and found that though the Japs had been there, it was surely for a short time only, and outside of a few drawers being pulled open, nothing else was touched. They probably came looking for people, and when. They found none they did not linger long. The tabernacle had not been touched, and the key was still in the sacristy. I opened the tabernacle and began consuming an almost full ciborium of hosts. After a very short while I could swallow no more for they were just too dry. So I had one of the men who was with me to get a bottle of water. By taking a mouthful of Hosts, and then a swig of water, it worked much better, and finally I consumed all of the Blessed Sacrament.
The next step was to go and see if they stole our two horses, that were stabled in a sort of a barn. We found that the Japs had probably not even gone to the barn, for the horses were still there So we led them out, and I tied them at the back of the residence, and I planned on loading articles, clothing, bedding, etc,, on them so we could take more. One of the horses however became frightened and broke away- and ran out the back gate. The other one remained. We got carrying baskets and began to pack clothes, Mass wine, flour for hosts, host-making. gadgets, blankets, and anything I could think we would need for our stay out in the hills.


Instead of a saddle I tied about 6 big bed comforters on the back of the horse, and the men who were with me got their carrying poles and put the basket of things I had collected on their shoulders, and we set off. I led the way leading the borne, and the men followed me.
Instead of going the most direct way, up the road alongside the river, we detoured, for about the time we were leaving the residence we heard 8-10 shots somewhere near the upper bridge. As the road alongside the river passed this bridge, we detoured and hit the road above town.
It was just getting daylight when we got to Chwren-sen’s house, and while I was glad to see everyone, I guess they were even gladder to see me. I had been busy all the time, and bad no time to worry too much about anything; but they had nothing to do but to worry, and hope and pray that nothing happened to me.
After breakfast our entire group, which must have consisted of about 30 Fuchow orphans, between the ages of 12 and 17; 4=5 women from Fuchow along with the orphans, and about 8-10 men and women from Ihwang, who were either teachers or workers in the residence, started for Ou-tu.
Ou-tu was still 12-13 miles and we did not reach it till late in the afternoon, for everyone was walking, and carrying something or her. Neither Steve or Murph had any decent shoes, As previously noted, when they arrived in Ihwang, I had their shoes sent to the department to be cleaned. When the Japs came the shoes bad not yet returned, and the only footwear they had was Steve had a pair of my cloth Chinese shoes which were too small for him, He could only get the front part of his foot into them, and the back of the shoe he turned down and he walked on it. Murph had a pair of my rubbers, which he could hardly get on his feet, so he did as Steve did: put his toes into them and walked on the back part of the uppers. When Murph was running up the rivers with me trying to catch up with theme he ran through a puddle of waters and the bottom was muddy, pulling off one of the rubbers and. he lost it, and ended up with only one. My shoes were too small for Steve to walk in, so he and Murph both took them off and walked barefooted



Shortly after noon we ran into Father Leo Moore. At this time he was my assistant in Ihwang. He was always rather jittery, and never wanted to get entangled in anything. The morning when I left to meet the Fuchow crowd rumors began to fly thick and fast, Leo decided to get out of Ihwang, and he went across the river to some hills there, located about 2 miles from Ihwang. He remained there all afternoon, and when he saw the Japs come into town shortly after noon he dared not come back. he remained with a family there in the hills all night, and the next morning he too decided to head for 0u-tu and we met him on the road.
Father Moore’s feet were more the size of Murph’s than mine, so Father Moore gave Murph his shoes, as Murph’s feet were so sore and blistered that he could hardly walk any more. Father Moore went barefooted to Ou-tu, and Steve’ rode my horse.
By night we arrived in 0U-tu. There were now 6 priests: Steve, Murph, Vandenburg, Moore, myself, and a Chinese priest, Father Duh, who was in Ou-tu. We didn’t have enough beds, so we took down some doors and made beds out of them. The Fuchow Orphans and others slept any and everywhere there was a few feet of space.
The next few days were anxious ones, for rumors were flying in all directions. We heard that the Japs were in Er-tu, in Ssu-tu (only 5 miles away), and on the road to Ou-tu. We hearly believed them but by now we didn’t know whom to believe, for we firmly believed that they would not come to Ihwang, but they did. We thought that they would not come to Ou-tu, but who knew if they would or not? Definitely there was the possibility.
As a result we decided to move on again. About 3-4 miles from Ou-tu we had another mission, Den-kwo-gee, and we owned a building there that was used as a chapel, and a priest’s room. Den-kwo-.gee was hidden from Ou-tu for it was half way up a mountain,.
in a small valley, and the only way of getting to it was by a small path that wound through the mountain. it was a village of 8-10 families,. just about all of what were Catho1ics. So we all moved in, to the number of about 50. We used doors, boards and what not for beds, and for the first time in about a week felt relatively safe.


We definitely lacked many things, but we were lucky to have the most important and essential thing: money. Both Steve and I had been able to bring a considerable sum of money with us when we fled, As a result, we were able to buy rice to eat, and also vegetables, but rarely anything in the meat line. We also, at last, had relative safety, and so did not mind putting up with other inconveniences.
I really believe that at Den-kwo-gee I had one of the tastiest and most appreciated meals in my entire life1 After being there for ten days or so, with a daily diet of rice and vegetables three times a day, this diet began to pall just a little One day someone wan able to buy an old hen from one of the villagers. This old hen was probably so old that she quit laying, and this must have been the reason the owner was willing to sell. But we did not, mind that, she still had a little meat on her bones. We boiled that old hen in rice till even she , tough as she was, became tender. We didn’t have any dish or bowl large enough so this dish of chicken and rice, we served it in a wash basin. But let me tell you, that was the most tasty meal in my entire life, and I think I will remember it all my life. In the more than 30 years that have elapsed I have eaten many times chicken and rice, and enjoyed it every time, but none of them could compare to the one in Den-kwo--gee,
There was not much to do but sit, but at least we were safe. It was not long before we got word of what happened to Ihwang, The Japs had set fire to the town, but only about 1/10 was burned. They shot any man, woman, child, cow, hog, or just about anything that moved. They raped any woman from the ages of 10-65, and before burning the town they thoroughly looted it. When they Wanted something to eat they would shoot any hog that they saw, then cut f I a few pounds of meat that they wanted at the moment, and then leave the rest of the animal on the ground to rot, There weren’t many cows, but those they saw they did the same to them.
No one knows the number of persons killed by the Japs in Ihwang, but surely the number was in the hundreds. And none of the humans shot were buried either, but were left to lay on the ground to rot, along with the hogs and cows.



This part of the Japanese army were absolute barbarians. The men of the Roman Legions could not have been more barbaric. They acted as though they were out of their minds in their hate of the Chinese----- though they had little reason to hate them, for the soldiers did not even resist them. They killed without any provocation, and thought no more of taking a human life than they would of squashing a fly or a mosquito; they looted they raped indiscriminately, they burned.
This happened not only in Ihwang, but in every town they went to. In. Fuchow it was the same; a good portion of the town was burned including the residence, though the church, constructed of stone, did. not burn. In our diocese 15-20 churches, or schools, or buildings, either singly, or all, were burned.
In Iliwang I bad built a new rectory within the past 5 years. We used the old rectory for a school. This old building was infested as were many of the buildings in China, with white ants (termites), The first report we got in Doa-kwo-gee was that all the buildings in the Ihwang mission were burned. The first thought that came to my mind on hearing this was:”Well, I’ll bet that this got rid of the white ants.”
Actually none of the Ihwang mission were burned. They did knock down doors, kick out walls, burned furniture for firewood, and tore up the place as well as looting it. Since the Japs were on foot or horseback they could not carry off much except valuables like gold, silvers money. etc. But what they could not carry off they destroyed.
The Japanese stayed in Ihwang only a few days, and then moved on, and they left no garrison behind. But like a swarm of locusts, they left
behind nothing but destruction and. chaos. -
After 8-10 days we got reliable word in Den-kwo-gee that the Japs had left Ihwang, and that son residents were returning. So I decided to return to Ihwang to try to keep as much of the church property from being carried off as I could. Consequently, Slug Murphy and I returned
But what a scene of destruction and smells met us as we entered the city! All of the afore-mentioned pigs, cows humans etc., that had been killed by the Japanese, and left to rot where the fell, were smelling to high heaven. Some, especially the humans, had had some dirt shoveled

over them, but they were just too many, and too decayed, to be buried1 However, there were packs of dogs, whose masters either had fled or had been killed, and who had no one to feed them. Consequently even enough man of the cadavers had been covered after a. fashion by people who had returned to the town, the dogs usually dug them out to get something to eat. The big maggot producing flies were almost as thick as snow flake in a snow storm. If these flies lit on a wire, or branches of trees, there were so thick that it made the wires look like sticks, and tiny branches of trees like limbs. They swarmed about you, and you had to keep your mouth closed lest they fly into your mouth.
With all this carrion, and the flies to spread it, disease was rampant. There surely were not as many people as flies by a long shot, for I dare say that not 1/20th of the people of Ihwang had returned. But even though the people were outnumbered b y the flies, they died like flies.
These flies spread disease of all types. People were especially subject to skin rashes and sores. Later on cholera took many victims. A woman, who cooked our meals, was well when she got up. She cooked our breakfast; by noon she was feeling bad; died about 2 o’clock, and they buried her before night.
While Murph and I were there, there were daily rumors of the Japs as being here or there; that they were coining to Ihwang, etc. However, they never materialized, but they did keep one in an almost constant state of tension and worry.
One day the rumors got especially bad, and the report was that the Japs were only I mile from Ihwang. However, the direction from which they were supposed to be coming was the wrong direction. They were in Fuchow, to the north, but not on any of our sides, either east or west at least not very close. These rumors this day said that they were approaching from the west, and while it would not have been impossible for them to approach from this direction, it was not too probably. Everyone began evacuating the city. Murph and I decided that it was only


a rumor, and there was no need to flee. However, after watching just about everyone in the city running as if the Japs were only a foot behind them; terror written on their faces; urging us to go, etc., I said to Murph that it seemed that all the people of the town were leaving, and we might as well go too, as we would be the only ones left.
So we began packing out things to return to Ou-tu. We began in a very calm and leisurely fashion, but after seeing everyone scurrying about like rats with a cat three feet behind them, panic began to take hold of us also. And before we finished our packing we were running around grabbing things and preparing to leave just about as fast, and as panic stricken as the Chinese. We surely learned from this that panic is contagious.
We returned to Ou-tu and stayed for a few days, but the Japs never did return to Ihwang, so we did, and this time it was permanent.
After about two months the Japanese drew back to their original lines, which were outside our diocese, and everyone was able to return to their homes.
This raid was of no practical value to the Japanese, for they did not find any secret airfield from which planes could take off to bomb Japan. It cost them plenty, and the only ones who got anything out of it were the soldiers who looted silver and god. The Chinese suffered terribly, with thousands and thousands of persons killed, hundreds of towns burned; and no one knows how many suffered from looting, rape, etc.
(During this invasion, just about the same thing happened in Yukiang, where Bishop Quinn, Tom Smith, Bob Kraft, Norb Miller, Howie Glynn, the Sisters from Poyang, etc., spend three months out in the hills around Yukiang. That is another story.)
At the time of the original invasion, Father Verdini, whom I first met in Poyang when I arrived in China for the first time, and who regaled Tom Smith and I with so many interesting stories about life in China, was in 1uking. Father Verdini as an Italian priest, working with us, and he volunteered to remain behind to sort of take care of things, when the


Japs came. At the time Italy and Japan were on the same sides, so he figured that he would have no trouble with the Japanese. When the Bishop and the rest came back to Yukiang, after the Japanese retreated all they found of Father Verdini, and some 20-30 people who were in the residence at Yukiang when the Jape came, a pile of bones in a pond behind the residence. They had all been killed by the Japs, to the very last man, woman and child, and not one single person was left to tell the story as to how, when, where and why it happened.
Also at Wushan, a French Vincentian, Father Michael Poizat, who was also working with us, was strung up by his thumbs by the Japs for half a day and. severely beaten. When the Japs left someone cut him down, but he died from the mistreatment shortly thereafter.
Around August 15th Steve and the Fuchow crowd were able to return to Fuchow, and he found pretty much the same situation as I found in Ihwang. Only in his case the priest’s house had been burned to the ground. Ho has a number of stories told him of ‘happenings at the time of the invasion, and later, since they (the Japs) kept a garrison of soldiers in Fuchow during the three months of the invasion.
One story told Steve was by an old Catholic’ woman. They thought that the Japa would not bother old women, so she, and some other women remained at home when the Japs took over. Some time shortly thereafter, she, and a couple of other old women, were thrown into a cistern by the Japs. Whether they thought the fall would kill them, or whether they intended later to come and throw dirt on them, thereby burying them, no one knows. And from some of the other actions of the Jap soldiers at this time, who would say that they threw these old women into the cistern for no reason at all; or just for the fun of it? Anyway, after being pushed down this cistern ‘the Japs did not return. Luckily there was only a little water in the bottom of the cistern, and none of. the people drowned. The Catholic woman who was in this cistern, also found that a friend of here, a pagan woman, was there also. They expected to’ die at any moment, so the pagan woman, who knew a little about the Catholic religion, asked’ the Catholic woman to baptize her. The Catholic woman reached down and got some of the water

from the bottom of the cistern and baptized her pagan friend. The Japanese never returned, and that night some people pulled them out of the cistern, and they were no worse for the happening; in fact, the pagan was better off, for she was baptized.
After the Second World War was over things gradually got back to normal again, in 1947 I returned to the States for a vacation. When I returned in 1948 there were rumors of the Communists getting stronger, especially in the northern provinces of China. They were able to come out of the province of Sian, and captured a fair amount of territory in the northern part of China.
The reasons the Communists were suddenly able to spread out and, gain territory, after remaining in Sian for almost 10 years without spreading out was because when the Japanese surrendered at the end of the war, the Communists being in that area accepted the surrender of the Japanese, and took over all then guns and war materials. Up to this time the Communists had practically no arms at all, and all of the propaganda about the Communists fighting the Japs is just so much hog wash.
When the Japanese surrendered practically all of the Nationalist Chinese soldiers were in Chungking, Ssu-shwen province, in the extreme western part of China. American planes immediately began ferrying Nationalist soldiers to the east to accept the surrender of the Japanese, and they were able to do this from Pekin on south, but from north of Peking the Communist’s ot there first and took the surrender of the Japanese. This was the one thing that enabled the Communists to have enough guns to begin fighting the Nationalists, and eventually take of or the entire of China.
I have heard numerous persons say that it was the fault of America that the Communists took over China; that if America had. Helped the Nationalists more the Communists couldn’t have taken over. This just is not true. America did all that she could, or that could be expected of her, and it was not the fault of America that China was lost, but it was the fault of the Nationalist Government, add no one else.



America did play into the hands of the Communists, and did enable the Communists to take over quicker than they might ordinarily have done, but it was because there were some men in the United State’s State Department by the names of White, Service, etc., who, if they were not actually Communists, were definitely pro-Communist. They sold President Truman and General Marshall the idea that the Chinese Communists were just mere agrian reformers; that they were not real and true Communists, etc. and that America should give them a break. Because of this bad advice General Marshall insisted on having a coalition government after the war, with the Communists represented as well as the Nationalists.
However, putting a Communist in the government, especially one that was supposed to be a democratic one, is like putting a lion in a pen with a sheep. Chiang Kai-shek knew that it would not work but he was forced to allow it by General Marshall,
Because of this representation in the government, the Communists gained respectability. Previously they were looked upon, and called, what they really were: “bandits”. Now they suddenly became agrian reformers; staunch foes of the Japanese; workers for democracy, etc.
All this helped the Communists to gain respectability, and it helped them take over more and more of China, and they were aided in this to a degree by what America did do, and not from what she did not do, or what she should have done, but didn0t.
 Another big factor enabling the Communists to take over was the fact that because of the long drawn out war the Nationalist Government began running their money printing machines 24 hours a day, to pay for necessities. Due to the war, and the disturbed conditions, practically no taxes reached the Federal Government. Plenty of taxes were collected, but for the most part they were used up before they got to the Federal level. Due to the disturbed conditions law and V order had broken down for quite some time. Very few public officials received any pay, so they began to get it. by bribes, extortion, etc. Bribes were always a way of life for the Chinese, but now it became rampant. Soldiers were always poorly paid, and even more so now so they became extortionists and robbers.


Inflation during this time was so bad that they simply dropped the last two....zeros on the bills (there was no silver: all paper). As a result, $1.00 became 1¢ $10.00 became 10¢ and $100.00 became $1.00. No one trusted the money, and rice became the standard on which every, thing was gauged. You hired a man to work for you, for say 6 bushels of rice a month, plus 2 pounds of oil and I pound of salt, etc. You did not have to pay in rice and oil, etc., but whatever the price of rice was at the time the salary was to be paid, and you paid that much money.
So with all this turmoil and uncertainty inflation, graft, corruption, etc., the climate was ripe for a takeover. The Nationalist soldiers were of the very lowest caliber. But this was nothing new, for soldiers always had to be coerced to join the army; many times being chained. There is an old Chinese rhyme which says :You do not use good iron to make nails, and you do not use good men to make soldiers.” Soldiers had always been looked down upon, and usually it was for a good reason. They very rarely ever fought the enemy, but did oppress the civilians. They received very poor salaries, and were more or less forced to extort both money and necessities of life from civilians.
So when the Communists began closer and closer the ordinary person was more or less glad to hear that. They said that nothing could be worse than the way things were at the moments and the way they had been for some time now.
Immediately prior to the Communists taking over Ihwang-----and this applied to any other place in the same way----conditions were unbelievably turbulent. The Nationalist soldiers were retreating, and I don’t believe they ever put up a decent attempt at resistance; they just retreated in a rout, And when soldiers retreat in disorders. without any semblance of order or discipline, it is a shambles. The soldiers forcibly and with guns grabbed any able bodied man they found to help them carry their equipment. Some of these forcibly captured carriers


• 39
were able later on to escape and return home, but some were never heard from again.
Other than the soldiers, civil servants of all types, who had worked for the Nationalist government, knew that if they fell into the,
hands of the Communists, their days would be numbered. As a result, practically every official of any kind fled, even policemen, when it became evident that the Reds would take over. So there was no one to enforce law and order of any kind. It is little wonder then that the ordinary citizen thought that “anything would be better than this”, and were not too averse to the coming of the Communists. So many more or less welcomed the Reds, not particularly because they liked the Communist, or that they were for Communism, but they felt that anything would be better than what they had been enduring. But, oh, how wrong they were! When it looked like i6 was inevitable that the Communists would take over the entire country, Bishop Quinn sent home some of his missionaries, especially the young, and also some of the older ones. H closed the seminary and sent three theologians to Europe to finish their studies. And then we sat back and waited. In Ihwang we received word that the Communists had taken over Fuchow. Some days later I had a letter from Steve Dunker, and he said that they had caused the church no trouble, nor had they bothered’ him wither. This was reassuring, and we then saw that the Communists were not going to act like the Japs did when they took over. We were very glad to hear this, for we were fearful as to just how they would act, especially towards American priests; two things which they hated:  Americans and ministers of religion. The Communists had been in Fuchow for about a week, and there were continual rumors of their arrival in Ihwang, but so far nothing materialized. However, one day the rumors of their arrival were no longer rumors. Without any fanfare, or advance notice, they simply were


there. What happened was that many of them dressed not as soldiers, but as ordinary people, bad been coming in small numbers for some time, unknown to anyone but themselves. And when the main force of the army came, they put on their soldier uniforms and Joined the main force of the army.
The first I knew that they had arrived in Ihwang was a small group came to the residence investigating to see if thorn were any Nationalist; soldiers, or officials, around. They were very courteous and caused no trouble, and after a short while left. And, for some few weeks not a single soldier so much as put his head in our property.
At this time I had a. radio, and I had an aerial on the top of the house. So as soon as the first group left I took it down, for they would surely say that this was a transmitting set, and that I was either communicating with the Nationalists or America.
Next I had a .22 caliber rifle and revolver. I took the revolver and threw it behind the rice bin in the barn, where it could hardly ever be found. The extra cartridges I had, with the exception of a few boxes, I threw into the big latreen where all human excrement was put so that it could be later used for fertilizer,
The Communists caused no trouble in town. They were very law abiding, and bothered no one. They said that everyone should go about their own business, and that they would go about theirs, and neither would bother the other. They never gave any orders, or started 1ayin down rules and laws. They said that their only job was to chase out the Nationalist “bandits”, and that they had no intention of bothering law-abiding citizens. They also said. that they were there to protect and help the people, and to liberate them from the yolk of the Nationalists. They urged all former officials to return and resume their jobs and offices, and promised that they Would not be harmed unless they were evident criminals.
At first all this nice talk was naturally taken with a. grain--- or two or three or four----of salt. But after the elapse of 10-15 days, with its constant repetition, and their being so nice to every one, business did begin again to a certain degree. No Nationalist

pages 41-60

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